In the passage referred to by Stolnitz Ia, IIae, q.
For since good is what all seek, the notion of good is that which calms the desire; while the notion of the beautiful is that which calms the desire by being seen or known. Consequently those senses chiefly regard the beautiful, which are the most cognitive, viz. And earlier at Summa Theologiae I, q. Putting these together and drawing upon his general metaphysics yields the following. Objectively speaking they relate to things, primarily natural substances but derivatively artifacts and by extension to parts and collections of both , which have natures in virtue of being quantities of matter arranged according to structuring principles, forms.
The form of a thing determines its proper parts and their proper arrangement integrity and proportion and where this is unimpeded by material defect there is clarity brightness. The metaphysical idea is that since form is determinate its presence should result in an equally determinate, precise nature; but defective matter, and indeed the granularity of matter per se, will compromise this to some degree. Nonetheless, where and to the extent that form introduces parts and arrangement to matter so it also gives clarity of structure to the entity thereby constituted. Such a condition also comprises its ontological goodness or value.
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This, however, can also be viewed from the perspective of an agent seeking such a thing with a speculative e. In so far as a nature is an object of enquiry it is conceived in relation to judgments of truth ; as an object of practical interest it is regarded as good ; and as a focus of experience it is thought of as beautiful. What else Aquinas and those who followed him have to say about other aspects of beauty and art follow from this core account, which, it should be noted, combines both objective and subjective conditions in the concept of beauty.
No later medieval author adds philosophically to this, and the onset of the postmedieval renaissance sees a change from conceptual analysis, metaphysics and epistemology to literary humanism. While Aquinas looks back to Augustine, Dionysius and others mentioned above, his reflections on beauty remain fresh and relevant to the kind of analysis that characterizes modern philosophical aesthetics, and confirm the opening claim that a contemporary reader has reason to consider the ideas of medieval writers.
Value of art Foucault High art versus low art Idealism.
Free trial voucher code. Invalid Search. Enter keywords, authors, DOI etc. Search History. Search history from this session 0. Metrics Views 1. Abstract The concept of the aesthetic as it features in contemporary philosophy is a modern one deriving from eighteenth-century philosophical psychology and investigations into judgments of taste.
Historical background The medieval period may be considered to extend for a thousand years from the ending of the western Roman Empire in the fifth century to the beginnings of Renaissance humanism in the fifteenth. Founders of Western medieval thought: Augustine and Erigena Before proceeding to the High Middle Ages it is important to say something about the thought of St Augustine — and about figures of the first renaissance, i.
Medieval aesthetics in the golden age The practice of art was a source of significant reflection within medieval thought. References Abelard Letters of Abelard and Heloise, trans. Radice , New York: Penguin Books. Alexander of Hales —48 Summa theologica, ed. Aquinas, T. Augustine On Music , trans. Schopp , New York: Appleton. Augustine On the Nature of the Good, in J. Burleigh ed. Augustine Confessions, trans. Chadwick , Oxford: Oxford University Press. Augustine On Christian Doctrine, ed. Green , Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Augustine City of God against the Pagans, trans. Dyson , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Basil the Great Nine Homilies on Hexaemeron, trans. Jackson , in P.
An Introduction, Second Edition
Schaff and H. Wace eds Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. Boethius Fundamentals of Music, trans.
Boethius The Consolation of Philosophy, trans. Watts , Harmondsworth: Penguin. Charlemagne Opus Caroli regis contra synodum [ Libri Carolini ], ed. Freeman with P. Meyvaert , Hannover: Hansche Buchhandlung. Clement of Alexandria Paedagogus and Stromata , trans. Wilson , in Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. Roberts , J. Donaldson and A. Erigena Periphyseon: The Division of Nature, trans. O'Meara and I. Sheldon-Williams , Montreal: Bellarmin.
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Arnim, H. Stoicorum Veterum Fragmenta. Leipzig: Teubner. Bychkov, O. Sheppard, eds. Greek and Roman Aesthetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cooper, J. Hutchinson, eds.
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